A study by Kurt Giesa and Chris Carlson found that the impact of the Affordable Care Act will disproportionately affect young adults and cause a dramatic spike in their cost of premiums. The study looked at the effects of the reforms on premiums for the nongroup market (individual policies). It found that premiums for people aged 21-29 with single coverage who are not eligible for premium assistance would increase by 42%. People aged 30-39 with single coverage who are not eligible for premium assistance would see an average increase in premiums of 31%. The study found that almost 4 million uninsured individuals aged 21-29 can expect to pay more out of pocket for single coverage than they otherwise would have had the Affordable Care Act not become law.